From Sticks and Stones to Zeros and Ones: The Development of Computer Network Operations as an Element of Warfare: A Study of the Palestinian-Israeli Cyberconflict and What the United States Can Learn from the 'Interfada'   [open pdf - 737KB]

From the thesis abstract: "The Palestinian-Israeli Cyberconflict erupted in 2000, when Israeli hackers crippled the prime website of Hezbollah by mobilizing pro-Israeli supporters to 'bomb' the site with automated floods of electronic mail. In retaliation, Hezbollah rallied pro-Arab supporters for a counter-attack, which soon downed the main Israeli government website and the Israeli Foreign Ministry site. Attacks involving website defacements, denial-of-service, viruses, and Trojan horses occurred by both parties for a span of months, effectively shutting down websites, disrupting Internet service and e-commerce. As is evident by this turn of events, one need search no further than a computer savvy teenager and his laptop for an effective weapon of choice against an adversary's economy, infrastructure, military, or government. Additionally, psychological operations, to include deception and propaganda, continue to influence one's enemies, and at times the world audience, into acting in a manner conducive to one's aims. In effect, the asymmetric element of information warfare may eventually level the battlefield between superpowers and minor states and/or terrorist organizations. [...] This thesis seeks to collect, classify, analyze, define, and resolve Information Operations/Information Warfare (IO/IW) activities, specifically focused on the utilization and effects of CNO during the Al-Aqsa Intifada, and how such analysis can be applied to United States national security. Through analysis of the utilization and effects of IO/IW during the Al-Aqsa Intifada, the United States may be better able to prevent such attacks against its own networks and sources of information and infrastructure."

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Naval Postgraduate School, Dudley Knox Library: https://calhoun.nps.edu/
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