Task Force on Deterring, Preventing, and Responding to the Threat or Use of Weapons of Mass Destruction: Executive Summary   [open pdf - 2MB]

"The Task Force divided its findings into three specific areas - Early Warning, Chemical and Biological Threats, and Nuclear Threats. First, the Task Force found that timely warning of proliferation significantly expands options for deterrence.Augmenting traditional intelligence sources with open sources shows promise for early proliferation detection. Second, chemical and biological threats have historically been addressed through protection or response; the Task Force recommends these threats can and should be addressed more broadly in a deterrence context. Defense-in-depth, from warning through attribution and requisite retaliation, is feasible,and more importantly, critical to addressing emerging threats. Finally, nuclear deterrence requires relearning much of what has been forgotten with regards to the principles, but applying them with new tools and unprecedented integration. That integration should leverage conventional, nuclear, and non-kinetic capabilities coupled with messaging and demonstrated operational flexibility to strengthen deterrence and assurance, better manage escalation risks, and widen the options available to leadership."

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Defense Science Board: https://www.acq.osd.mil/dsb/
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