Characterization and Abuse of Electronic Cigarettes: The Efficacy of 'Personal Vaporizers' as an Illicit Drug Delivery System [open pdf - 2MB]
"Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes or e-cigs) [...] have experienced a significant increase in popularity for those seeking an alternative to smoking traditional tobacco products. [...]The lack of enforced regulation prior to May 2016 has resulted in easy accesses to e-cigarettes and has shepherded their nefarious uses. The use of the e-cigarettes as an illicit drug delivery device is touted on websites, forums, blogs, and videos describing how best to use them for specific illicit drugs such as tetrahydrocannabinol, methamphetamine, fentanyl, and heroin. [...] Significant efforts have been made to educate law enforcement, medical examiners, toxicologists, and crime lab practitioners about drug use and abuse employing e-cigarettes. Public awareness has increased as to the potential dangers, and crime scene investigators and death investigators have 4 This resource was prepared by the author(s) using Federal funds provided by the U.S. Department of Justice. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice. reported collecting these and sending them to crime labs. Ultimately, this study has provided greater understanding in the court systems nationwide as to the nature of drug usage, abuse, and overdose cases in which e-cigarettes were used to deliver an illicit drug."
National Criminal Justice Reference Service: https://www.ncjrs.gov/