Venezuela as an Exporter of 4th Generation Warfare Instability   [open pdf - 3MB]

From the monograph foreword: "The Latinobarometric Polls underline the fact that even though most Latin American countries' Gross Domestic Products (GDP) have been improving since 2001, there are deep flaws in the political-economicsocial systems throughout the region. Popular dissatisfaction stems from deep-rooted socioeconomic and political inequalities, general distrust of most national institutions, and a specific lack of confidence in the police, the legislatures, and the political parties. There are also rising popular expectations regarding currently nonexistent rights. Consequently, Latin America, as it did in 1960-90, appears to be a revolutionary, insurgent, criminal, and populist dream. Thus, the Americas appear to be particularly susceptible to state (and their proxies) and nonstate actors that promise the security, stability, and prosperity national governments have generally failed to provide. Accordingly, Venezuela and President Hugo Chavez have become exporters of asymmetric, unconventional, and undeclared war. If left ignored and unchecked, these wars compel radical, unwanted, and epochal political-economic-social system change. [...] This monograph comes at a time when there are well over 100 ongoing small, unconventional, asymmetric, and revolutionary wars in which hegemonic states and their proxies and violent nonstate actors are helping their own organizations or political patrons bring about radical change and acquire putative power. Accordingly, the author of this monograph, Dr. Max Manwaring, examines a cogent case that illustrates how would-be revolutionaries all around the world might seek to realize their dreams. They would include populists and neo-populists; the New Left, New Socialists, and 21st Century Socialists; criminal nonstate actors, agitators, gangs, and popular militias; and other 'modern mercenaries.'"

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