Space, Time and Force: Relationships in Cyber Space   [open pdf - 1MB]

"The Joint Chiefs of Staff envision information superiority, attained through the conduct of Information Operations (IO), as key in obtaining full spectrum dominance in future conflicts. Computer Network Attack (CNA) and Defense (CND) are relatively new IO weapons that the operational commander will soon employ along with his other, more traditional, weapons to gain information superiority and maintain freedom of action while limiting that of his enemy. He will also have to defend against the same types of weapons wielded by his enemy, for the depth and breadth of networked computer systems in the U.S. military makes him vulnerable to attack. Planning to execute, and defend against a CNA is a task not addressed by current planning methodologies and procedures. It will still require the planner to balance the operational factors of space, time, and force in relation to his objective, at times much like he would for a physical attack, and at others, in very new and interesting ways. In the physical world, the factors impose on him certain limits that cannot be denied: a larger physical space takes longer to traverse than a smaller one, a smaller space restricts the movement of a large force, and it takes longer to equip and train a large force than it does a small one. In the context of a CNA however, these three factors mean different things to the planner. Cyber space is defined by the sizes and numbers of the adversary's networked automation systems. Within the cyber space distance is nearly irrelevant, speed is almost instantaneous, and forces are able to arrive with little or no warning, strike, and maintain the attack for as long as necessary to attain the objective without experiencing fatigue or injury. Attacks may never even be detected. The planner must understand the operational factors in cyberspace and use their unique interrelationships to his advantage when seeking to gain information superiority."

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Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC): http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/
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