"After the breakup of the Soviet Union, Chechnya declared its independence and . elected a Western style government and President. In 1994, Russia, emerging from the disintegration of the Soviet Union, invaded Chechnya to re-establish control over the area. The Russian invasion and subsequent enemy-centric campaign met united Chechen resistance, suffered heavy losses, and failed to undermine support for the insurgency. With no end in sight, Russia signed a peace treaty that led to the withdrawal of all Russian soldiers and officially ended the war with the final status to be resolved in 2001. The war left Chechnya independent but in ruins, while Russian economic isolation efforts diminished the Chechens' prospects for a stable life. Isolated from legitimate economic opportunities and still armed for war, many Chechens conducted lucrative criminal activities or continued the war to liberate neighboring Caucasus states. In 1999, suffering from Chechen based terror attacks and criminal activities, Russia invaded Chechnya to secure the resource vital region from criminals and terrorists through the reintegration of the nation into the Russian Federation. The Russian invasion and subsequent enemy-centric operations, conducted by highly trained elite units that executed methodical and detailed plans, were unable to destroy the Chechen resistance. In 2002, with a better understanding of the Chechen people, the Russian government introduced population-centric tactics. Through bribery and amnesty, the Russians lured moderate Chechen officials, who subsequently won local elections, then begin administering Chechnya. War weary and disillusioned by radical Islam, the Chechen populace chose the stability and economic opportunities the Russian orchestrated and funded Chechen government provided. Relentlessly targeted by Russian enemy-centric tactics and losing Chechen support do to Russia's population-centric tactics, the remaining separatists turned to terrorism. By the end of 2010, from Russia's point of view, the hybrid tactics, that combined population and enemy-centric tactics, ended organized opposition to the government and brought signs of increased stability to Chechnya."
Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC): http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/