Trends in U.S.-China Science and Technology Cooperation: Collaborative Knowledge Production for the Twenty-First Century? [open pdf - 570KB]
"The governments of the United States and China have been cooperating in areas of science and technology (S&T) for 35 years under the 1979 U.S.-China Science and Technology Cooperation Agreement, which was renewed most recently in 2011. Over the years, the Agreement has facilitated a complex government-to-government relationship consisting of some 30 agency-to-agency protocols and more than 40 active sub-agreements and annexes between the technical agencies of the two countries in a wide range of fields including agriculture; energy; environmental protection; public health; earth, atmospheric, and marine sciences; basic research; standards and metrology; and nuclear safety. Since the Agreement was first signed, varied and extensive S&T relations between the two countries have also developed outside the government-to-government relationship involving companies, universities, professional societies, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and various people-to-people contacts. The overall S&T relationship has thus become an exceedingly complex pattern of interactions involving S&T in support of government missions and the supply of public goods (mainly through the government-to-government channels), commercially relevant high-technology exchanges (mainly through corporate channels), and cooperation in basic research and higher education (mainly through university channels)."
U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission: https://www.uscc.gov/