"Violence is a major occupational challenge confronting the field of Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Firefighters and EMS responders are increasingly called upon to meet community demands for service. As a result, firefighters and EMS responders are often expected to respond to incidents where they can be exposed to violence. Violence against EMS responders has been recognized as an occupational hazard since the early 1970s, and recent incidents are evidence that the problem has not been abated. A review of the literature from academic and industry trade journals shows an increase in attention to the issue over the years. However, there is limited understanding of risk factors and preventive measures. The literature provides insight into the characteristics of violence perpetrators, EMS responder risk factors, and best practices. Much of the available information on these factors is contradictory, or not rooted in evidence-based assessment. The purpose of this report is to document the causes and risk factors of violence and mitigation opportunities to reduce and prevent violence to EMS responders."
U.S. Fire Administration: https://www.usfa.fema.gov/