China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities-Background and Issues for Congress [June 6, 2017] [open pdf - 2MB]
"The question of how the United States should respond to China's military modernization effort, including its naval modernization effort, is a key issue in U.S. defense planning. Observers of Chinese and U.S. military forces view China's improving naval capabilities as posing a potential challenge in the Western Pacific to the U.S. Navy's ability to achieve and maintain control of blue-water ocean areas in wartime-the first such challenge the U.S. Navy has faced since the end of the Cold War [...] China's naval modernization effort encompasses a broad array of platform and weapon acquisition programs, including anti-ship ballistic missiles (ASBMs), anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCMs), submarines, surface ships, aircraft, and supporting C4ISR (command and control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance) systems. China's naval modernization effort also includes improvements in maintenance and logistics, doctrine, personnel quality, education and training, and exercises [...] Potential oversight issues for Congress include the following:  whether the U.S. Navy in coming years will be large enough and capable enough to adequately counter improved Chinese maritime A2/AD forces while also adequately performing other missions around the world;  whether the Navy's plans for developing and procuring long-range carrier-based aircraft and long-range ship-and aircraft-launched weapons are appropriate;  whether the Navy can effectively counter Chinese ASBMs and submarines; and  whether the Navy, in response to China's maritime A2/AD capabilities, should shift over time to a more distributed fleet architecture."
CRS Report for Congress, RL33153
Federation of American Scientists: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/index.html