"Since the start of the 21st century, the U.S. energy system has seen tremendous changes. Technological advances in energy production have driven changes in energy consumption, and the United States has moved from being a growing net importer of most forms of energy to a declining importer-and possibly a net exporter in the near future. The United States remains the second largest consumer of energy in the world, behind China. The U.S. oil and natural gas industry has gone through a 'renaissance' of production. Technological improvements in hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have unlocked enormous oil and natural gas resources from tight formations, such as shale. Oil has reached a level of production not seen in decades, and is projected to surpass the previous peaks of the early 1970s. Natural gas has set new production records almost every year since 2000. In conjunction with the rise in oil and natural gas production, U.S. production of natural gas liquids has also increased. The rise in production of these fuel sources has also corresponded with increased consumption and exports of each […] Energy production and consumption have been issues of interest to Congress for decades. Current topics of concern to Congress include exports, imports, independence, security, infrastructure, efficiency, the environment, and geopolitics. Legislation has been introduced in both houses of Congress to address these issues and others."
CRS Report for Congress, R44854
Federation of American Scientists: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/index.html