Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Wipe Sampling Collection Efficiencies on Porous, Permeable, or Uneven Surfaces: Technical Report and Sampling, Extraction, and Analysis Procedure [open pdf - 1MB]
"Despite the fact that wipe sampling is commonly performed and the data produced by this technique is used to make numerous decisions, there is no strong consensus on the best method for collecting a wipe sample(s). It is generally agreed upon that in order to produce reproducible quantitative results, consistent wetting solvents, wipe materials, sampling techniques, and sampling areas must be used. Furthermore, proper wetting solvents should be selected with consideration of the analyte of interest. Conventional practices dictate that wet wipes are better than dry wipes for the collection of organic chemicals. This study was designed to understand factors affecting wipe sampling for specific chemical warfare agents (CWAs), including sarin (GB), soman (GD), cyclosarin (GF), sulfur mustard (HD), and O-ethyl-S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate (VX) from non-ideal (e.g., porous and permeable) surfaces, including drywall, vinyl tile, laminate, coated glass, and wood. Pesticides, diazinon (DZN) and malathion (MA), were tested in addition to CWAs because literature data already exists and a comparison is possible between previous work and the experimental investigations described in this report. The experimental strategy for this study is considered follow-on work stemming from previous collected data. The previous work identified Kendall-Curity® gauze as a preferred wipe when sampling for CWAs based on holding time stability studies and the absence/low levels of contaminants/interferences present in the wipe material."
United States Environmental Protection Agency: http://www.epa.gov/