"In the following pages, this paper will address the broad issue of homeland defense, which is the aspect of homeland security for which the Department of Defense (DoD) is responsible. It examines the U.S. military's role in homeland defense, and more specifically, the role that the National Guard should play in it. The paper begins by providing a working definition of homeland defense, then briefly addresses the broad options available to DoD, which include using either the active duty component (i.e. the fulltime regular forces), the Reserves, the National Guard, or a combination of each. It argues that for myriad reasons, the National Guard is the preferred force for a major share of homeland defense. The paper then focuses on the Guard, offering an analysis of three options policy-makers may face as they debate potential changes to the National Guard. These changes may become necessary as part of an effort to better meet the challenges of America's revised National Security Strategy with its new principal component, homeland security. The role of the National Guard within the DOD is often a politically charged issue and the considerable debate regarding its proper role and its true ability to contribute to America's defense is nothing new. As we shall see, some argue that the single role of the Guard should be homeland defense, while others argue that it should be a regular part of the overall mission of DoD that primarily includes overseas deployments. This paper focuses primarily on the Army component of the National Guard."
Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC): https://www.dtic.mil/dtic/