"The first combat zone use of the GBU-43/B Massive Ordnance Air Blast (MOAB) device by US forces in Afghanistan (USFOR-A) on 13 April 2017 brought the Islamic State--Khurasan Province (ISKP) to the headlines. ISKP emerged in Afghanistan and Pakistan in early 2015 with individuals or disparate groups of militants pledging allegiance to Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi and became operationally active after few months. ISKP represents a danger to the stability of Afghanistan and Pakistan as well the wider region including India and Central Asia. I argue that, beyond that, the outfit has become a vehicle to legitimize the growing internationalization of the wider Afghan conflict, in particular the changing calculus of Iran and Russia vis-à-vis the Taliban, and has the potential to become a tool for proxy warfare in Afghanistan evocative of the mid-1990s."
Marine Corps University (U.S.). Middle East Studies: https://www.usmcu.edu/
MES Insights, Volume 8, Issue 2