U.S., Chinese, and Russian Perspectives on the Global Order   [open pdf - 265KB]

"Since the end of the cold war and the unexpected collapse of the bipolar world order, scholars and policymakers have attempted to understand the contours of an emerging order. As early as 1989, Francis Fukuyama predicted the end of history, a world where liberal democracy reigned supreme without serious ideological challengers. U.S. president George H. W. [Herbert Walker] Bush proclaimed a 'new world order' in 1991, 'where diverse nations are drawn together in common cause to achieve the universal aspirations of mankind--peace and security, freedom, and the rule of law.' However, Fukuyama's onetime mentor Samuel Huntington foresaw a very different structure, a clash of civilizations where frequent wars would be fought along civilizational fault lines. By the mid-1990s many observers noted a unipolar world structure dominated by the United States, although debate revolved around how long this unipolar structure would last.1 For instance, French Foreign Minister Hubert Vedrine described the United States as a 'hyperpower,' meaning 'a country that is dominant or predominant in all categories,' and thus a country whose unilateral tendencies in his view needed to be balanced."

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