"On December 29, 2016, President Barack Obama imposed sanctions on Russia for malicious cyber activity. These are the latest in a series of U.S. sanctions regimes that have been imposed on Russia over the last several years in response to activities that are state-sponsored or allegedly conducted by government officials. In addition, a number of Russian individuals and entities are subject to sanctions for terrorism, transnational crime, and weapons proliferation. The United States' use of economic sanctions in furtherance of national security or foreign policy is implemented, primarily, by the Departments of State (visas, arms embargos, arms sales, foreign aid, and in limited circumstances, prohibiting the use of U.S. passports to travel), Commerce (commercial exports), Defense (arms sales), Justice (investigation and prosecution), and the Treasury (blocking assets, prohibiting transactions, licensing export transactions, financial services, and in limited circumstances, restricting transactions related to travel). Interagency consulting occurs in implementing and administering any economic sanctions regime. In the 115th Congress, Members are drafting legislation to require sanctions on Russia for its cyber intrusions and other aggressive activities (pending in the Senate), and election interference (pending in the House)."
CRS Insight, IN10634
Federation of American Scientists: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/index.html