"'Normal' immigration from Cuba to the United States has not existed since the Cuban Revolution of 1959 brought Fidel Castro to power. For more than 50 years, the majority of Cubans who have entered the United States have done so through special humanitarian provisions of federal law. U.S. policy on Cuban migration has been shaped by a 1966 law known as the Cuban Adjustment Act, as amended, and U.S.-Cuban migration agreements signed in the mid-1990s, operating in conjunction with the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA). [...] In addition to entering the United States under special policies and becoming LPRs [lawful permanent residents] through the Cuban Adjustment Act, Cubans can gain permanent admission to the United States through certain standard immigration pathways set forth in the INA. [...] Special provisions of law also make Cuban migrants in the United States eligible for federal assistance. [...] The steps taken by the Obama Administration to normalize relations with Cuba have raised questions about the possibility of future changes to U.S. policy toward Cuban migrants through either executive or congressional action. Regarding the latter, legislation was introduced in the 114th Congress to repeal the Cuban Adjustment Act and eliminate the special treatment that Cuban entrants receive with respect to federal refugee resettlement assistance and other federal assistance. It remains to be seen whether Congress will act on any such measures."
CRS Report for Congress, R44714
Federation of American Scientists: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/index.html