What Comes Around, Goes Around (and Around and Around): Reviving the Lost History of FEMA and its Importance to Future Disasters [open html - 81KB]
"In January 2014, government officials and citizens began to reflect on two emergency programs the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) put into place after Hurricane Sandy in New York. The Rapid Repairs and the Sheltering and Temporary Essential Power (STEP) programs were an innovative way for FEMA to use its authorities, normally limited to providing temporary housing, to make minor repairs to the homes of disaster survivors. Instead of spending millions more to place these families in hotel rooms, rental resources or other temporary housing, FEMA could allow survivors to stay in their homes, saving millions of dollars and reducing the angst of those forced to leave their communities behind. However, like any government program created from scratch in the midst of a disaster, it suffered from significant problems, inefficiencies, and poor implementation. If only the Federal Coordinating Officer for FEMA and his state and local government counterparts did not have to create and deliver these programs on the fly. It turns out they did not. These programs had already been delivered to the public almost exactly 40 years earlier."
Homeland Security Affairs Journal: http://www.hsaj.org/
Homeland Security Affairs Journal (December 2016), v.12, article 6