Expanding Cooperative Threat Reduction in the Middle East & North Africa: Law-Related Tools for Maximizing Success   [open pdf - 2MB]

"Since World War II, more WMD attacks have occurred in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region than in any other region of the world. Egypt used chemical weapons against Yemen from 1963 to 1967, Iraq used chemical weapons against Iran during the Iran-Iraq War, Iran reportedly used chemical weapons against Iraq during that same war, and Libya used chemical weapons against Chad in 1987. In addition to these uses of chemical weapons against neighbors, Iraq used chemical weapons on Kurds within its territory in 1988, al Qaeda in Iraq has used chlorine gas, and chemical weapons have been repeatedly used during the Syrian civil war. The most recent notable new user of chemical weapons in the Middle East is the Islamic State, which is reportedly also pursuing biological and nuclear weapons. The director of NATO's WMD Non-Proliferation Center recently published an article in which he warned that 'there is a very real - but not yet fully identified risk - of foreign fighters in ISIL's [Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant] ranks using chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) materials as 'weapons of terror' against the West.'"

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