Current and Emerging Post-Fukushima Technologies, and Techniques, and Practices for Wide Area Radiological Survey, Remediation, and Waste Management [open pdf - 3MB]
"Technologies to survey and decontaminate wide-area contamination and manage the subsequent radioactive waste have been developed and implemented following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant release and the breach of a radiological source resulting in contamination in Goiânia, Brazil. These civilian examples of radioactive material release provided some of the first examples of urban radiological remediation. Many emerging technologies have recently been developed and demonstrated in Japan following the release of radioactive cesium isotopes (Cs 134 and Cs-137) from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in 2011. Information on technologies reported by several Japanese government agencies such as the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), the Japanese Ministry of the Environment (MOE) and the National Institute for Environmental Science (NIES), together with academic institutions and industry have been summarized and are compared to recently developed, deployed and available technologies in the United States. The technologies and techniques presented in this report may be deployed in response to a wide area contamination event in the United States. In some cases, additional research and testing is needed to adequately validate the effectiveness of the technology over wide areas. Survey techniques can be deployed on the ground or from the air, allowing a range of coverage rates and sensitivities. Survey technologies also include those useful in measuring decontamination progress and mapping contamination. Decontamination technologies and techniques range from non-destructive (e.g., high pressure washing) and minimally destructive (plowing) to fully destructive (surface removal or demolition). Waste minimization techniques can greatly impact the long-term environmental consequences and cost of remediation efforts. Recommendations on technical improvements to address technology gaps are presented together with observations on remediation in Japan."
Report No. EPA/600/R-16-140
Environmental Protection Agency: http://www.epa.gov/