"The development of cyberspace defense capabilities for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) has been making steady progress since its formal introduction at the North Atlantic Council Prague Summit in 2002. Bolstered by numerous cyber attacks such as those in Estonia in 2007, Alliance priorities were formalized in subsequent NATO cyber defense policies that were adopted in 2008, 2011, and 2014. This monograph examines the past and current state of NATO's cyberspace defense efforts by assessing the appropriateness and sufficiency of them to address anticipated threats to member countries, including the United States. This analysis focuses on the recent history of NATO's cyberspace defense efforts and how changes in NATO's strategy and policy writ large embrace the emerging nature of cyberspace for military forces, as well as other elements of power. In general, the topics presented herein are well documented in many sources. Thus, this monograph serves as a primer for current and future operations and provides senior policymakers, decision-makers, military leaders, and their respective staffs with an overall appreciation of existing capabilities as well as the challenges, opportunities, and risks associated with cyberspace-related operations in the NATO context. The scope of this discussion is limited to unclassified and open source information; any classified discussion must occur within another venue."
United States Army War College Strategic Studies Institute: http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/