"The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) offers several programs designed to help farmers and ranchers recover from the financial effects of natural disasters, including (1) federal crop insurance, (2) the Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program (NAP), (3) livestock and fruit tree disaster programs, and (4) emergency disaster loans for both crop and livestock producers. All have permanent authorization, and the emergency loan program is the only one requiring a federal disaster designation. Most programs receive mandatory funding amounts of 'such sums as necessary' and are not subject to annual discretionary appropriations. With enactment of the permanent livestock/fruit tree disaster programs in the Agricultural Act of 2014 (2014 farm bill; P.L. 113-79), nearly all segments of the U.S. farm sector are now covered by a standing disaster program. The array of federal programs, summarized in Table 1, reduces the potential need for emergency assistance that Congress previously provided to farmers and ranchers in the form of ad hoc disaster payments."
CRS Report for Congress, RS21212
Federation of American Scientists: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/index.html