"President Obama's budget request for FY2016 included $145.694 billion for research and development (R&D), an increase of $7.625 billion (5.5%) over the estimated FY2015 R&D funding level of $138.069 billion. The request represented the President's R&D priorities. Funding for R&D is concentrated in a few departments and agencies. Under President Obama's FY2016 budget request, seven federal agencies would have received 95.6% of total federal R&D funding, with the Department of Defense (DOD, 49.5%) and the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS, 21.3%) accounting for more than 70% of all federal R&D funding. The largest increases in agency R&D funding in the President's request would have gone to the Department of Defense (DOD, up $4.670 billion, 6.9%), Department of Energy (DOE, up $861 million, 7.3%), and the Department of Commerce (DOC, up $601 million, 39.4%). Legislation targeted the R&D budgets of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, National Science Foundation, and DOE Office of Science seeking to double them from their FY2006 levels. The America COMPETES [Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology, Education, and Science] Act aimed to double funding over 7 years, and the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010 over 11 years. The President's FY2016 budget requested increases for these accounts, as it did in the President's FY2015 and FY2014 requests. It departs from earlier Obama and Bush Administration budgets that explicitly stated the doubling goal. Enacted funding for FY2015 for these accounts represents a compound annual growth rate of 3.25% since FY2006, a rate that would result in doubling in 22 years."
CRS Report for Congress, R43944
Federation of American Scientists: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/index.html