Federalism Issues in Surface Transportation Policy: A Historical Perspective [November 6, 2015] [open pdf - 877KB]
"P.L. 112-141 [Public Law 112-141], the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21), reauthorized federal highway and mass transit programs through the end of FY2014 (27 months), and authorized to be appropriated $105.2 billion for these programs in FY2013 and FY2014 (about $118 billion including already appropriated funding for FY2012). MAP-21's authorization has been extended four times, most recently by P.L. 114-73, the Surface Transportation Extension Act of 2015, through November 20, 2015. Although the federal presence, and influence, on surface transportation policy remains significant, MAP-21 was a continuation of previous reauthorizations' emphasis on increasing state decision-making authority. For example, MAP-21 provides states greater flexibility in the use of federal highway assistance by eliminating 60 federal highway programs, a two-thirds reduction. While many federal highway programs were discontinued as separate entities, states are authorized, but not required, to spend their federal highway funds for many of the same purposes. MAP-21 also changed the project delivery approval process in an effort to reduce the average project delivery time for highway and mass transit construction projects. It also provides states additional flexibility by expanding the activities eligible for funds set-aside for non-highway related enhancements, such as landscaping, environmental mitigation, conversion of rails to trails, bikeways, and historic preservation. States were also provided expanded authority to transfer a portion of those funds to other federal highway and safety programs."
CRS Report for Congress, R40431
Federation of American Scientists: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/index.html