Algorithm and Simulation Development in Support of Response Strategies for Contamination Events in Air and Water Systems   [open pdf - 4MB]

"Chemical/Biological/Radiological (CBR) contamination events pose a considerable threat to our nation's infrastructure, especially in large internal facilities, external flows, and water distribution systems. Because physical security can only be enforced to a limited degree, deployment of early warning systems is being considered. However to achieve reliable and efficient functionality, several complex questions must be answered: 1) where should sensors be placed, 2) how can sparse sensor information be efficiently used to determine the location of the original intrusion, 3) what are the model and data uncertainties, 4) how should these uncertainties be handled, and 5) how can our algorithms and forward simulations be sufficiently improved to achieve real time performance? This report presents the results of a three year algorithmic and application development to support the identification, mitigation, and risk assessment of CBR contamination events. The main thrust of this investigation was to develop 1) computationally efficient algorithms for strategically placing sensors, 2) identification process of contamination events by using sparse observations, 3) characterization of uncertainty through developing accurate demands forecasts and through investigating uncertain simulation model parameters, 4) risk assessment capabilities, and 5) reduced order modeling methods. The development effort was focused on water distribution systems, large internal facilities, and outdoor areas."

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