Evaluation of Various Types of Personnel Shelters Exposed to an Atomic Explosion, Report to the Test Director [open pdf - 18MB]
"This joint Federal Civil Defense Administration-Atomic Energy Commission project was conducted to evaluate several shelter designs. Two underground shelters (50-man capacity), one open and one closed, were exposed to the open shot, and two were exposed to an earlier shot (at 1050 ft). Three basement exit shelters were exposed to the early shot at 1350 ft; four were exposed to the open shot, two at 1270 ft and two at 1470 ft. Groups of three aboveground utility type shelters, one of masonry blocks, one of precast reinforced concrete, and one of poured-in-place reinforced concrete, were placed at 2250, 2750, and 3750 ft from the open shot. Reinforced-concrete bathroom shelters were placed in rambler type houses (Project 31.1) at 2700 aind 10,500 ft from the open shot. Three types of basement shelters were constructed in two frame houses (Project 31.1) at 5500 and 7800 ft, and two types of basement shelters were constructed in two brick houses (Project 31.1) at 4700 and 10,500 ft from the same burst. Instrumentation consisted of Wiancko pressure gauges, q-tubes, temperature- and noisemetering devices, gamma-radiation film dosimeters, and neutron detectors. No measurements of structural behavior were made. Mannequins were placed in some shelters on the open shot for demonstration purposes. On neither shot was structural damage sustained by the large underground personnel shelters. Occupants of the closed shelter would not have been disturbed by blast, debris, or radiation. Damage to the basement exit shelters was inversely proportional to their distance from Ground Zero (GZ) and was directly proportional to the amount of opening in the entrance. The closed shelter at the greatest distance received the least damage but was not satisfactory as a personnel shelter at the lowest pressure tested. Utility shelters provided unsatisfactory protection from radiation. All indoor family type shelters were satisfactory as tested and would have provided adequate protection for occupants."
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