ABSTRACT

Iran: Efforts to Achieve a Nuclear Accord [July 1, 2015]   [open pdf - 403KB]

"On November 24, 2013, Iran and the six powers that have negotiated with Iran about its nuclear program since 2006 (the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Russia, China, and Germany--collectively known as the 'P5+1') reached an interim agreement ('Joint Plan of Action,' JPA) requiring Iran to freeze many aspects of its nuclear program in exchange for temporary relief from some international sanctions. The period of the JPA, which began implementation on January 20, 2014, was to be six months, during which time Iran and the P5+1 would attempt to reach a comprehensive deal on the long-term status of Iran's nuclear program. The JPA has been seen as slowing Iran's build-up of nuclear material and improving the international community's ability to identify Iranian efforts to develop nuclear weapons. Iran has complied with its JPA obligations, according to the IAEA. Under the JPA, the P5+1 countries have refrained from imposing new sanctions and permitted Iran to repatriate to Iran about $700 million per month in oil sales proceeds. Iran's oil exports are capped at about 1.3 million barrels per day (including oil by-products)--a 50% drop from 2011 levels of about 2.5 million barrels per day. The JPA also permits Iran to sell petrochemicals and trade in gold and other precious metals, and to conduct transactions with foreign firms involved in Iran's auto sector. Throughout 2014 and thus far in 2015, the international community has focused on negotiations on a comprehensive nuclear accord ('Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, JCPA). The P5+1- Iran negotiations began in February 2014 and have made steady but slow progress, causing several extensions of the JPA. On April 2, 2015, the P5+1 and Iran announced that they had reached an overarching framework for a comprehensive agreement, with the intent of finalizing a detailed agreement by the expiration of the current JPA period on June 30, 2015. The main outstanding issues center on the size and scope of Iran's uranium enrichment program; the duration of the comprehensive accord; and the extent of the lifting of nuclear-related sanctions."

Report Number:
CRS Report for Congress, R43333
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Publisher:
Date:
2015-07-01
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Copyright:
Public Domain
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pdf
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application/pdf
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