From the Abstract: "The First Gulf War highlighted significant shortcomings in the United States military's ability to detect and defend against biological weapons. A subsequent examination of U.S. capabilities reveals that, historically, defenses against biological weapons have never been regarded as adequate. Despite seventy years of effort, the United States still struggles with the biological weapons threat. It is hypothesized that there is a bias inherent in the biological defense program that is hindering the development of more effective defensive measures. This work conducts a historical analysis utilizing a congruency/process tracing test designed to determine the level of influence that behaviors associated with three distinct theories have had over the U.S. biological program. The history of the program is examined for evidence of behaviors associated with organizational frames, realism, and bureaucratic politics. From t he historical data, it is determined that while behaviors associated with each theory have exerted some influence, a chemical frame has exerted the greatest influence over the program. It is argued that this influence has blinded those within the program to the unique nature of biological weapons, and has subsequently hindered the development of effective countermeasures. Based upon this finding, the impact of organizational frames on the program is examined and possible solutions are explored."
Air Force Center for Unconventional Weapons Studies: http://cuws.au.af.mil/