"Tribes are sovereign nations that maintain a government - to - government relationship with the Unites States. There are currently 566 federally recognized tribes throughout the contiguous United States and Alaska. As sovereign governments, tribal authority cannot be infringed upon by states; however, the US Supreme Court has held that Congress has the authority to legislate on tribal issues. In addition to political sovereignty, tribes exercise cultural sovereignty in the form of traditions and religious practices unique to each tribe's history and culture. Cultural sovereignty 'encompasses the spiritual, emotional, mental, and physical aspects' of Native people's lives and serves as a foundation to tribal exercise of political sovereignty. In the context of infectious disease control, tribes have inherent authority to protect the public health and welfare of their citizens using methods most relevant for their communities. Some tribes have also enacted laws regarding infectious disease control measures. This menu summarizes selected tribal code provisions related to infectious disease control."
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/