From the abstract: "The emergency services community must recognize that the world is constantly changing and adjust accordingly. It will have to be more nimble and proactive with its capabilities if it wants to prepare effectively for future threats and respond to atypical emergencies. Over the past several years, fire, law enforcement and emergency medical services communities have not adapted their missions or capabilities to prepare, train, and respond effectively in a joint capacity to perhaps the two most imminent, nonconforming threats facing communities across America -- the active shooter and fire as a weapon. These are incidents that necessitate an integrated response; traditional single agency 'stove piped' responses will not be effective in saving lives and property. If we do not integrate Fire/EMS and law enforcement capabilities for these imminent threats, not only will civilian lives be lost, but those of first responders will be as well."
2015 by the author(s). Posted here with permission. Documents are for personal use only and not for commercial profit.
Homeland Security Affairs Journal: http://www.hsaj.org/
Homeland Security Affairs (June 2015), v.11 article 5