"When unified (1956-2011), Sudan was Africa's largest nation, bordering nine countries and stretching from the northern borders of Kenya and Uganda to the southern borders of Egypt and Libya. Strategically located along the Nile River and the Red Sea, Sudan was historically described as a crossroads between the Arab world and Africa. Domestic and international efforts to unite the country's ethnically, racially, religiously, and culturally diverse population under a common national identity fell short, however, and in 2011, after decades of civil war and a six-year transitional period, Sudan split in two. Mistrust between the two Sudans--Sudan and South Sudan--lingers, and unresolved disputes and related security issues still threaten to pull the two countries back to war. The north-south split did not resolve other simmering Sudanese conflicts, notably in Darfur, Blue Nile, and Southern Kordofan. Roughly 4.5 million people remain displaced as a result of fighting in these areas. […] Logistical challenges, particularly during seasonal rains, also constrain the delivery of relief for those who have fled Sudan, primarily across the border to remote refugee camps in South Sudan. The conflict that emerged in South Sudan in late 2013 further threatens access to those refugees, and has led more than 120,000 South Sudanese to flee into Sudan. The harassment of aid workers is a problem in both countries, further hindering aid responses. […] This report provides a brief overview of political, economic, and humanitarian conditions in Sudan and examines the conflict dynamics that persist in the country. It also outlines U.S. policy and congressional engagement."
CRS Report for Congress, R43957