Unapproved Genetically Modified Wheat Discovered in Oregon and Montana: Status and Implications [December 4, 2014] [open pdf - 229KB]
"The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) announced on May 31, 2013, that a variety of genetically engineered (GE) wheat had been discovered in a field in eastern Oregon. No varieties of genetically modified wheat have been approved, or deregulated, by the Animal Plant and Health Inspection Service (APHIS), the USDA agency responsible for regulating the release of GE plants into the environment. Release of GE plants into the natural environment is regulated by APHIS under the Plant Protection Act (PPA, 7 U.S.C. 7701 et seq.), as amended. […] A recent discovery of another variety of GE wheat in Montana was publicly reported in September 2014. A new APHIS investigation of this unauthorized wheat began in July. The safety of GE organisms for food and feed is regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.). […] The presence of GE wheat in the market could have had significant trade implications if the variety turned out to be widespread. That has not been the case, and the trade implications were minimal. The United States is a major wheat exporter, exporting about 50% of its wheat crop. About 90% of Oregon's wheat crop is exported. Many countries, including Japan, the European Union, and South Korea, have zero-tolerance policies regarding imports of unapproved GE varieties. […] In November 2014, Monsanto reached a settlement with U.S. wheat farmers who had sued the company. While not admitting liability, Monsanto also agreed to pay $250,000 to several wheat growers' associations."
CRS Report for Congress, R43100
The National Agricultural Law Center: http://nationalaglawcenter.org/