CIA's Covert Operations in the Congo, 1960-1968: Insights from Newly Declassified Documents [open pdf - 455KB]
This document was originally published by Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS), a publication of the Office of the Historian. "From 1960 to 1968, CIA conducted a series of fast-paced, multifaceted covert action (CA) operations in the newly independent Republic of the Congo (the Democratic Republic of the Congo today) to stabilize the government and minimize communist influence in a strategically vital, resource-rich location in central Africa. The overall program--the largest in the CIA's history up until then--comprised activities dealing with regime change, political action, propaganda, air and marine operations, and arms interdiction, as well as support to a spectacular hostage rescue mission. By the time the operations ended, CIA had spent nearly $12 million (over $80 million today) in accomplishing the Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson administrations' objective of establishing a pro-Western leadership in the Congo. President Joseph Mobutu, who became permanent head of state in 1965 after serving in that capacity de facto at various times, was a reliable and staunchly anticommunist ally of Washington's until his overthrow in 1997. Some elements of the program, particularly the notorious assassination plot against Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba that was extensively recounted in 1975 in one of the Church Committee's reports, have been described in open sources. However, besides the documentary excerpts in that report, limited releases in the State Department's 'Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS)' series, and random items on the Internet and in other compilations, a comprehensive set of primary sources about CIA activities in the Congo has not been available until now."
United States. Central Intelligence Agency: https://www.cia.gov/
Studies in Intelligence (September 2014) v.58, no.3 p.1-9