Report to the President on Combating Antibiotic Resistance   [open pdf - 667KB]

From the Background: "The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that the annual impact of antibiotic resistant infections on the U.S. economy is $20‐35 billion in excess direct health care costs, with additional costs to society for lost productivity as high as $35 billion per year and 8 million additional days in hospitals. And the problem is worsening. A number of bacterial diseases are almost or entirely untreatable because the causal agents have acquired resistance to all of the antibiotics that can be deployed against them. Resistance is due largely to extensive exposure of bacteria to antibiotics. Antibiotics impose a selection pressure for resistant bacteria -- that is, susceptible bacteria die in the presence of the antibiotic, whereas resistant strains survive and then multiply without competition from the susceptible strains."

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Listed on October 1, 2014 [Critical Releases]