Intelligent Recognition of Acoustic and Vibration Threats for Security Breach Detection, Close Proximity Danger Identification, and Perimeter Protection [open pdf - 3MB]
"The protection of perimeters in national, agricultural, airport, prison, and military sites, and residential areas against dangerous approaching human and vehicles when using human agents to provide security is expensive or unsafe. Because of this, acoustic/vibration signature identification of approaching human and vehicles threats has attracted increased attention. This paper addresses the development and deployment of three types of acoustic and vibration based smart sensors to identify and report sequential approaching threats prior to the intrusion. More specifically, we have developed: a) acoustic based long range sensor with which vehicles' engine sound and type can be identified, b) vibration based seismic analyzer which discriminates between human footsteps and other seismic events such as those caused by animals, and c) fence breaching vibration sensor which can detect intentional disturbances on the fence and discriminate between climb, kick, rattle, and lean. All of these sensors were designed with several issues in mind, namely, optimized low power usage, a low number of false positives, small size, secure radio communication, and military specifications. The developed vibration based system was installed in an airport with unprotected shore lines in the vicinity of taxi-and run-ways. The system reported an average of less than two false positives per week and zero false negative for the duration of forty-five days. Six fence sensors were installed on the terminal area and end-of runway chain-link fences where there was possibility of intentional fence climbing. The fence sensors reported no false positives for the duration of forty-five days which included several days of seasonal storms."
2011 Naval Postgraduate School (U.S.). Center for Homeland Defense and Security. Posted here with permission. Documents are for personal use only and not for commercial profit.
Homeland Security Affairs Journal: http://www.hsaj.org
Homeland Security Affairs (March 2011), Supplement no.3