From the Summary: "Recent technological developments have led to an increase in domestic production of natural gas and crude oil. As a result, there is interest among some parties in exporting liquefied natural gas (LNG) and crude oil to take advantage of international markets. This has placed new attention on the laws and regulations governing, and in many cases restricting, the export of fossil fuels. In most cases, export of fossil fuels requires federal authorization of both the act of exporting the fuel and the facility that will be employed to export the fuel. For example, the export of natural gas is permitted by the Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy, while the construction and operation of the export facility must be authorized by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). Oil exports are restricted, but an export that falls under one of several exemptions can be authorized by the Department of Commerce's Bureau of Industry and Security. Oil pipelines that cross international borders must be permitted by the State Department. Coal exports do not require special authorization specific to the commodity; however, as with natural gas and crude oil, other generally applicable federal statutes and regulations may apply to the export of coal."
CRS Report for Congress, R43231