Whole of Government Approach: Maximizing Unity of Effort between the Department of Defense (DoD), Department of State (DoS), and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)   [open pdf - 1MB]

"The USG (U.S. Government) has not effectively managed interagency collaboration in recent decades. The USG will face complex challenges in the future where it will be necessary to utilize all instruments of national power to their capacity. A coordinated interagency effort must be established and supported prior to U.S. intervention to ensure success. The purpose of this study is to identify challenges and shortfalls in interagency collaboration in order to recommend changes and implementations. The literature supports the concept of expanding interagency organizations like the JIACG (Joint Interagency Coordination Group) to conduct pre-conflict training, execute strategic objectives through tactical means, and maintain reachback capabilities to assist collaboration between DoS (Department of State) and DoD. Using a qualitative method to determine positive and negative aspects of interagency actions, processes, and policies, the selected case studies illustrate the enduring nature of interagency challenges. The results of the case studies show gaps in the whole of government approach that are rectifiable but does not yet have the essential governmental support which is untenable considering the alternative of prolonged interventions, waste of funding, and loss of personnel to conflict. It is prudent for the USG to become more efficient by increasing interagency."

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