"The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary federal agency charged with conducting and supporting biomedical and behavioral research. Its activities cover a wide range of basic, clinical, and translational research, focused on particular diseases, areas of human health and development, or more fundamental aspects of biomedical research. Its mission also includes research training and health information collection and dissemination. About 83% of the NIH budget funds extramural research through grants, contracts, and other awards. This funding supports research performed by more than 300,000 non-federal scientists and technical personnel who work at more than 2,500 universities, hospitals, medical schools, and other research institutions around the country and abroad. About 11% of the agency's budget supports intramural research performed by NIH scientists and non-employee trainees in the NIH laboratories and Clinical Center. The remaining 6% funds research management, support, and facilities' needs. Almost all of NIH's funding is provided in the annual Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies appropriations act. In addition to its regular annual appropriations, NIH received a total of $10.4 billion in supplemental FY2009 appropriations in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 (P.L. 111-5). ARRA funds were made available for obligation for two years; $4.95 billion was obligated in FY2009, and $5.45 billion in FY2010."
CRS Report for Congress, R43341