From the Sea to the Stars: A Chronicle of the U.S. Navy's Space and Space-related Activities, 1944-2009 [open pdf - 7MB]
From the introduction: "The operators of early Navy ships, like all seafarers, depended on accurate observations of the moon and the planets, along with the sun and other stars, for navigation when sailing beyond the sight of shore landmarks and navigation aids. The Naval Observatory, established in 1830, worked to improve the knowledge of heavenly bodies by computing and publishing their accurate positions and movements and developing improvements in the equipment (including chronometry) used to make accurate measurements of them--a precursor to the Navy's engagement with artificial satellite applications a century and a half later. This book tells the story of the U.S. Navy's first half century of space and space-related activities to support its sea, air, and land-projection operations. Much of its satellite capability was acquired jointly in cooperation with the other military services and agencies of the U.S. It is important to note that the United States does not at this writing have either spacecraft-based weapons systems or plans to acquire them (and if it did, that their acquisition and operation would very likely come under the Air Force rather than the Navy.)"
U.S. Department of the Navy: http://www.navy.mil/