Radioactive Waste Management in the USSR: A Review of Unclassified Sources, 1963-1990 [open pdf - 5MB]
"The Soviet Union operates a vast and growing radioactive waste management system. Detailed information on this system is rare and a general overall picture only emerges after a review of a great deal of literature. Poor waste management practices and slow implementation of environmental restoration activities have caused a great deal of national concern. The release of information on the cause and extent of an accident involving high-level waste at the Kyshtym production reactor site in 1957, as well as other contamination at the site, serve to highlight past Soviet waste management practices. As a result, the area of waste management is now receiving greater emphasis, and more public disclosures. […] Millions of curies of liquid low- and intermediate-level wastes have been disposed of by well injection into underground areas where they were supposedly contained by watertight rock strata. Sane gaseous wastes were also disposed of by well injection. This practice is not referred to in recent literature and thus may not be widely used today. Rather, it appears that these waste streams are now first treated to reduce volume, and then solidified using bitumen or concrete. These solidified liquid wastes from Soviet nuclear power reactor operations, along with solid wastes, are disposed of in shallow-land burial sites located at most large power reactor stations."
Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, PNL-7182
OSTI SciTech Connect: http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1086600.pdf