"Major areas of U.S. concern regarding Pakistan include regional terrorism; weapons proliferation; the ongoing Kashmir dispute and Pakistan-India tensions; human rights protection; and economic development. A U.S.-Pakistan relationship marked by distance and discord was transformed by the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States and the ensuing enlistment of Pakistan as a key ally in U.S.-led anti-terrorism efforts. Top U.S. officials regularly praise Pakistan for its ongoing cooperation, although there exist renewed doubts about Islamabad' s commitment to core U.S. concerns in the region. A potential Pakistan-India nuclear arms race continues to be the focus of U.S. nonproliferation efforts in South Asia. Attention to this issue intensified following nuclear tests by both countries in May 1998. South Asia is viewed by many analysts as an arena for the possible use of such weapons, as both countries have deployed nuclear-capable ballistic missiles and institutionalized nuclear command structures. India and Pakistan have fought three full-scale wars since 1947."
CRS Issue Brief for Congress, IB94041