"Major areas of U.S. concern regarding Pakistan include the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction; counter-terrorism; settlement of the Kashmir dispute; democratization and human rights; and economic reform and development. A potential Pakistan-India nuclear arms race continues to be the focus of U.S. nonproliferation efforts in South Asia and a central issue in U.S. relations with both countries. This attention intensified following nuclear tests by both India and Pakistan in May 1998. South Asia is viewed by some observers as an arena for the possible use of such weapons, as both countries have deployed nuclear-capable ballistic missiles and institutionalized nuclear command structures. India and Pakistan have fought three full-scale wars since 1947. Pakistan-U.S. cooperation began in the mid-1950s as a security arrangement growing from U.S. concerns about Soviet expansion- ism and Pakistan's fear of neighboring India. Cooperation peaked during the 1979-89 So- viet occupation of Afghanistan. Pakistan-U.S. ties weakened following the October 1990 cutoff of U.S. aid and arms sales to Islamabad, which were suspended by President Bush under Section 620E(e) of the Foreign Assis- tance Act (the so-called Pressler Amendment). Further U.S. sanctions were imposed on Pakistan (and India) as a result of their 1998 nuclear tests."
CRS Issue Brief for Congress, IB94041