"The major areas of U.S. concern in Pakistan include: nuclear nonproliferation; counter-terrorism; regional stability; democratization and human right; and economic reform and development. An ongoing Pakistan-India nuclear arms race, fueled by rivalry over Kashmir, continues to be the focus on U.S. nonproliferation efforts in South Asia and a major issue in U.S. relations with both countries. This attention intensified following nuclear tests by both India and Pakistan in May 1998. South Asia is viewed by some observers as a likely prospect for use of such weapons. India has developed short- and intermediate-range missiles, and Pakistan and acquired short-range missiles from North Korea. India and Pakistan have fought three wars since 1947."
CRS Issue Brief for Congress, IB94041