"The major areas of U.S. concern in Pakistan include: nuclear nonproliferation; counterterrorism; regional stability; democratization and human rights; and economic reform and development. An ongoing Pakistan-India nuclear arms race, fueled by rivalry over Kashmir, continues to be the focus of U.S. nonproliferation efforts in South Asia and a major issue in U.S. relations with both countries. This attention intensified following nuclear tests by both India and Pakistan in May 1998. South Asia is viewed by some observers as a likely prospect for use of such weapons. India has developed short- and intermediate-range missiles, and Pakistan has acquired short-range missiles from China and medium-range missiles from North Korea. India and Pakistan have fought three wars since 1947. […] In October 1999, the government of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif was overturned in a bloodless coup led by Chief of Army Staff Pervez Musharraf, who suspended the parliament and declared himself chief executive. In June 2001, General Musharraf assumed the post of president. The United States has strongly urged the Pakistan military government to restore the country to civilian democratic rule. President Musharraf has pledged to honor a Pakistan Supreme Court ruling ordering parliamentary elections to be held by late 2002. The Musharraf government has begun to address Pakistan's many pressing and longstanding problems, including the beleaguered economy, corruption, terrorism, and poor governance. Pakistan will receive well over one billion dollars in U.S. assistance and several billion dollars from international organizations to help strengthen the country as a key member of the U.S.-led anti-terrorism coalition."
CRS Issue Brief for Congress, IB94041