"International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections since 2003 have revealed almost two decades' worth of undeclared nuclear activities in Iran, including uranium enrichment and plutonium separation efforts. Iran agreed in 2003 to suspend sensitive activities in exchange for promises of assistance from Germany, France, and the UK (EU-3), but negotiations broke down in August 2005. On September 24, 2005, the IAEA Board of Governors found Iran to be in noncompliance with its Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) safeguards agreement (GOV/2005/77) and voted (GOV/2006/14) on February 4, 2006, to report Iran to the U.N. Security Council. The Security Council called upon Iran to take steps requested of it by the IAEA Board in February - reinstate its suspension of enrichment and reprocessing, reconsider construction of its heavy water reactor, ratify and implement the Additional Protocol, and implement transparency measures. Iran has continued enrichment activities and failed to meet the Security Council's request. The IAEA reported little progress at the end of April (GOV/2006/27). While the permanent members of the Security Council plus Germany (P-5 +1) wait for positive Iranian action on their June 6th proposal, they continue efforts to craft a tough U.N. resolution. This report will be updated as needed."
CRS Report for Congress, RS21592