"Although the end of the Cold War freed U.S.-India relations from the constraints of a bipolar world, bilateral relations continued for a decade to be affected by the burden of history, most notably the longstanding India-Pakistan regional rivalry. Recent years, however, have brought a sea change in U.S.- India relations, which was reflected in India's swift offer of full support for the U.S.-led war on terrorism following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on New York and Washington. The continuing U.S. concern in South Asia, however, is the reduction of tensions between India and Pakistan, which center on their competing claims to the former princely state of Kashmir, and the prevention of nuclear and ballistic missile proliferation. India and Pakistan have so far ignored U.S. and international pressure to sign the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty or the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)."
CRS Issue Brief for Congress, IB93097
United States. Dept. of State. Bureau of Public Affairs. Foreign Press Centers: http://fpc.state.gov/