This Congressional Research Service (CRS) report discusses Afghanistan, including its security, governance and attempts to stabilize the country and the surrounding area. "U.S. and outside assessments of the effort to stabilize Afghanistan are increasingly negative, to the point where top U.S. commanders say they are not sure the effort is 'winning' and some partner commanders say the effort is being lost. U.S. and outside assessments emphasize a growing sense of insecurity in areas around Kabul previously considered secure, increased numbers of suicide attacks and civilian deaths, and divisions within the NATO alliance about total troop contributions and missions. Both the official U.S. as well as outside assessments are increasingly pointing to Pakistan, and particularly the new Pakistani government, as failing to prevent Taliban and other militant infiltration from Pakistan. Although available U.S. forces are short, the Administration is conducting a review of U.S. strategy, adding U.S. troops to the Afghanistan theater, consolidating the command structure for U.S. and partner forces, expanding the Afghan National Army, and attempting to accelerate development activities to increase support for the Afghan government. The Administration also has increased direct U.S. action against Taliban concentrations inside Pakistan. The central government is relatively stable, but it is perceived as weak, corrupt, and unresponsive to core needs, causing popular disillusionment. A key component of U.S. strategy is to try to compel the Afghan government to redress these deficiencies. […] The United States has given Afghanistan about $30 billion (appropriated, including FY2009 to date) since the fall of the Taliban, of which about $15 billion was to equip and train the security forces."
CRS Report for Congress, RL30588