Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy [Updated May 4, 2006]   [open pdf - 470KB]

"Afghanistan's planned political transition was completed with the convening of a parliament in December 2005, but insurgent threats to Afghanistan's government persist and are even growing in some southern provinces. A new constitution was adopted in January 2004, and successful presidential elections were held on October 9, 2004, followed by parliamentary elections on September 18, 2005. In April 2006, the parliament reviewed and then confirmed 20 out of the 25 nominees to a new Karzai cabinet. This largely completed the post-Taliban political transition roadmap established at the December 2001 international conference in Bonn, Germany. Afghan citizens are enjoying new personal freedoms that were forbidden under the Taliban. Women are participating in economic and political life, including as ministers, provincial governors, and senior levels of the new parliament. However, the insurgency led by remnants of the former Taliban regime has conducted numerous lethal attacks since mid-2005, narcotics trafficking is rampant, and independent militias remain throughout the country, although they are being progressively disarmed. […] To build security institutions and assist reconstruction, the United States gave Afghanistan about $4.35 billion in FY2005, including funds to equip and train Afghan security forces. About $931 million is provided for in the conference report on the regular FY2006 aid appropriation (P.L. 109-102). In February, the Administration requested $1.1 billion in aid for FY2007 and about $2.5 billion in supplemental FY2006 funds, of which about $2.4 billion is to go to Afghan security force development and Defense Department counter-narcotics support efforts there. Both versions (House and Senate-passed) of H.R. 4939, a bill to appropriate the funding, provide most of the requested funds, although with some selected reductions. This paper will be updated as warranted by major developments."

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CRS Report for Congress, RL30588
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