"This report provides an overview of Egyptian politics and current issues in U.S.-Egyptian relations. It briefly provides a political history of modern Egypt, an overview of its political institutions, and a discussion of the prospects for democratization in Egypt. U.S. policy toward Egypt is aimed at maintaining regional stability, improving bilateral relations, continuing military cooperation, and sustaining the March 1979 Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty. Successive Administrations have long viewed Egypt as a moderating influence in the Middle East, at the same time in recent years, there have been increasing U.S. calls for Egypt to democratize. Congressional views of U.S.-Egyptian relations vary. Many lawmakers view Egypt as a stabilizing force in the region, but some Members would like the United States to pressure Egypt to implement political reforms, improve its human rights record, and take a more active role in reducing Arab-Israeli tensions. […]There are several pieces of pending legislation on Egypt before the 111th Congress. Among them, H.Res. 200 [House of Representatives Resolution 200] calls on the Egyptian Government to, among other things, 'end all forms of harassment, including judicial measures, the detention of media professionals and, more generally, human rights defenders and activists calling for reforms.' H.R. 696, the Egyptian Counterterrorism and Political Reform Act, would, among other things, prohibit U.S. military assistance to Egypt. H.Res. 282, among other things, 'recognizes the 30th anniversary of the peace treaty between Egypt and Israel, celebrates the treaty's strength and endurance, and commends the extraordinary diplomatic achievement that the treaty exemplifies.'"
CRS Report for Congress, RL33003
United States Department of State, Foreign Press Center: http://fpc.state.gov/