Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act: Overview and Issues [November 17, 2011] [open pdf - 277KB]
From the Summary: "Members of the uniformed services and U.S. citizens who live abroad are eligible to register and vote absentee in federal elections under the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act (UOCAVA, P.L. [Public Law] 99-410, 42 U.S.C. [United States Code] 1973ff) of 1986. The law was enacted to improve absentee registration and voting for this group of voters and to consolidate existing laws. Since 1942, a number of federal laws have been enacted to assist these voters: the Soldier Voting Act of 1942 (amended in 1944), the Federal Voting Assistance Act of 1955, the Overseas Citizens Voting Rights Act of 1975 (both the 1955 and 1975 laws were amended in 1978 to improve procedures), and the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act of 1986. The law is administered by the Secretary of Defense, who delegates that responsibility to the director of the Federal Voting Assistance Program at the Department of Defense (DOD). […] A state would be permitted to certify results, however, 10 days after the election or a later date set by state law. S. 331 would ensure that military voters have the right to bring a civil action under the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act to safeguard their right to vote. S. 1253, the Department of Defense Authorization Act for 2012, includes a provision that would amend UOCAVA to prohibit states from rejecting voter registration or ballot applications from overseas voters under certain circumstances. In October 2011, both the Election Assistance Commission and the Federal Voting Assistance Commission issued reports on participation by UOCAVA voters in the 2010 elections."
CRS Report for Congress, RS20764