Towards Effective Emerging Infectious Disease Surveillance: H1N1 in the United States 1976 and Mexico 2009 [PASCC Research in Progress] [open pdf - 457KB]
"Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose international security threats because of their potential to inflict harm upon humans, crops, livestock, health infrastructure, and economies. Influenza virus A/H1N1's impact on the Mexican economy in 2009, for example, has been estimated at a loss of almost one percent of Gross Domestic Product. Despite the scale of this threat, there are inherent limitations in preventing and controlling EIDs, including the scope of current disease surveillance efforts. All of this leads to the following questions: What infrastructure would be necessary to actualize effective zoonotic virus surveillance? What would it take to have this infrastructure available in developing countries? Within developing countries, what are the cultural, political, and economic challenges that would be encountered? Finally, are there any generalizations that can be drawn across the board for developed countries? This paper explores these questions through research on the 1976 U.S. H1N1 influenza virus outbreak, often recalled as the 'Swine Flu Affair,' and the recent 2009 influenza virus A/H1N1 outbreak in Mexico. [...] The comparison of Mexico's 2009 A/H1N1 outbreak with the U.S. H1N1 outbreak of 1976 provides notable observations--based on the strengths and weaknesses of each country's response--that can be used as a starting point of discussion for the design of effective Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs) surveillance programs in developing and middle-income countries." Note: This document has been added to the Homeland Security Digital Library in agreement with the Project on Advanced Systems and Concepts for Countering WMD (PASCC) as part of the PASCC collection. Permission to download and/or retrieve this resource has been obtained through PASCC.
Report No. PA 11-012
Public Domain. Downloaded or retrieved via external web link as part of the PASCC collection.
ASCO/PASCC Archives via NPS Center on Contemporary Conflict